Rice in Thailand

Rice in Thailand
09.09.2018

Rice production in Thailand is a significant part of the Thai economy. The country's agriculture employs about 40% of the population, of which 16 million are engaged in the cultivation and production of rice.
Thailand is the world's first exporter of rice, only occasionally giving the leadership of India. Rice plantations in the country amount to 9.2 million hectares or half of all cultivated land. Rice is a staple food in Thai society. Rice production is affected by climate change. If the average daily temperature exceeds 29°C, the grain quality deteriorates linearly with increasing temperature. An increase in average temperature of one degree Celsius leads to a decrease in rice yields by 3.2 percent. Rice-growing countries to replenish its coffers. Since 1953, the tax on rice production has amounted to 32 percent of all income. The government has set monopolistically high prices for grain exports. To support the industry, the government of Thailand invests in irrigation, infrastructure, construction of dams and canals. In the industry by the end of the 1990s worked almost two million two-wheeled tractors, one million pumps for irrigation, hundreds of thousands of grinders, etc.currently, most of the rice is grown in the North-East of Thailand, while in the past, the main rice producer was Central Thailand. The expansion of rice production was facilitated by the construction of new roads in the country, connecting the North-East of Thailand with the ports of the country. In 2014, Thailand exported 10.8 million tons of polished rice worth $ 5.37 billion, which was the highest figure in the history of the industry. In 2015, Thailand was the world's leading exporter of rice, the second was India (9.8 million tons), the third - Vietnam (6.61 million tons).
The whole "farm" of this country is reduced to sowing and harvesting rice crops. Thai rice is exported to more than a hundred countries around the world. Thai rice grows in the fields that are deliberately flooded with water. As a rule, fertile places for planting are fields near rivers, various reservoirs. If there is no pond nearby, the Thais create artificial pools: pre-plowed land, slightly reducing its level. Next-pour water and wait for some time. After months-prepared land becomes an excellent field for planting. Farmers ' clothes are high rubber boots, and a triangular Asian hat. Last - protect your head from sun stroke, and the boots are the "shield" from the attacks of leeches and snakes that are quite a can placed in the water. Above each rice field there is a kind of birdhouse (a place where owls live). Their presence attracts free guards-owls. Those, in turn, hunt for mice who like to "eat up" rice seedlings. Typical cats, only from the air. According to centuries-old traditions, only women trust to plant rice. Allegedly only she can make it "with love". With the development of technology, rice began to plant and men on specially equipped machines. However, such "high" technologies are rather an exception to the rules, which are used only by large manufacturers.
Rice cultivation is different from other plants. Grains of rice were grown in garden beds, improved the plastic holes, separating the shoots from each other. Before planting, the field is filled with water, and the resulting liquid soil is planted sprouted grains. It is surprising how the planting of rice sprouts takes place, which, in fact, is more like throwing Darts at the target. Rice fields are usually kept flooded with water, but periodically, depending on the phase of development of the plant, change the thickness of the water layer. Mnooogo people intends to, suits high rubber boots and gloves off. Knee-deep in water in flooded fields they plant these ears, then, in late autumn, to collect ripened rice.
Rice varieties are different. Jasmine-the most popular variety among Thais. Different appetizing aroma, soft white color and optimal stickiness. Grains of Jasmine rice-smooth, smooth, slightly oblong. Along the grain passes a small groove, which" opens " the grain during cooking. In Thai dishes served and cooked without salt,with a little soy sauce. Brown-recognized as the most nutritious and high-calorie. Not polished, due to which it has a brown color. It contains a large number of vitamins and minerals that favorably affect the digestive system and the body as a whole. The grain is long and thin. It is recommended to restore vitality and in case of problems in the digestive system. White-the most common variety of cereals. Sold in two types - steamed and classic. First before filling "orietta" ferry that allows you to "close" the grain from the loss of moisture and vitamins. Not glued, even with long cooking. Grain from oval to round. It is considered the cheapest and most satisfying kind of Thai rice, because "swells" in size when cooking, increasing the volume of portions. Red is a subspecies of classic Jasmine rice. Gained a similar color due to the mutation of red Jasmine grain. To preserve the red shell, the grain is not polished, not steamed. It is considered a dietary dish, contains a large amount of vitamin B6. To a greater extent is rice-decoration for the festive Thai table. When cooking "disclosed" in the form of a small flower, exposing the white core.
    Black-has a sharp, persistent aroma, surprises not only with its "interesting" color, but also with the "grid" of nutrients. It is a natural antioxidant (anthocyanin), helps to prolong youth. It is used by Thais as medicine for all diseases. Prevents malfunctions of the cardiovascular system, digestive tract. Regulates the thyroid gland, adjusts the psychological state of women. Especially relevant in hormonal disorders, rearrangements, pregnancy.
Enjoy your meal! Eat on health! Don't hurt!